DNA Surname Projects : Genetics for Genealogy. by pcramwinckel
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Humphrey DNA Results & Analysis



 




" Sept 10 (1620)    Michaell sonne of Michaell Humfrey bapt. "





Our Humphrey data has been submitted to Charles Kerchner's YSTR Log for a study of YSTR mutation rates in family projects. Surname project administrators can add information at :

                                                              Kerchner YSTR LOG



                                                                                                                                                                                           
           
            To go directly to our DNA Results/Analysis, go to:
  Results Table

            To go directly to our Humphrey surname project signup,   go to:



                                                                                     ***** Recent Updates *****

Count by haplogroup:

R1b = 37,  I1* = 15, 
I2b=6, R1a = 2, E1b/E3b = 6,  E1b1a=1, E1b1b1=1,  I = 1,  I1a=1, I1b = 1,  I1c = 1
-------------------


We are currently seeking DNA testing for men with surnames Hue(s) & Humphrey (ry)(fry)(frey), etc who live in/near the Honiton, Lyme Regis area, or men who may have male-line ancestors who lived there.    ******************************* 

details below:


07/07/07 Update:  We now have 43 members in our FTDNA project, 39 with current DNA test results.  We have now verified that 4 of  our 5 members who tested as haplogroup E3b are direct male descendants of Jonas Humphrey.  These 4  match closely enough to support the descendancy, and our 5th E3b member is getting a higher resolution test to compare. Details are below: Jonas immigrated in 1635 from England to Massachusetts.

07/05/07 Update:  The Dorset Country records office has given us a copy of the marriage certificate of Michael Humphrey & Martha Pride, my 11th grandparents, July 4, 1615, Bridport, Dorset, near Lyme Regis.  Other records corroborate the supposition that Michael likely was born in the Humphry families in Honiton, Devon, 15 miles NW of Lyme Regis. There are court records indicating possible relationships with Hue(s). Several Hues families adopted the surname Humphrey in the mid to late 1500's, and we have copies of several records of this change.

We are currently seeking DNA testing for men with surnames Hue(s) & Humphrey (ry)(fry)(frey), etc who live in/near the Honiton, Lyme Regis area, or men who may have male-line ancestors who lived there.     *******************************


04/21/07 Update:  We now have 40 members in our FTDNA project, 34 with current DNA test results.

Soon we will have results for a direct male descendant of Jonas Humphrey, 1620, who immigrated from Wendover, Buckinghamshire to Massachusetts in 1635. We expect some close matches with other members.  Michael Humphrey of Lyme Regis, Dorset, 1620, and Jonas are the earliest known Humphrey male immigrants to America.


12/11/06 Update:  We now have 33 members in our FTDNA Humphrey project.  New  test results indicate Haplogroups R1a, E3b, J2, I1c, and the majority continue to be R1b. This is consistent with the generality of the surname ( & various spellings), particularly in the British Isles.

To go directly to our DNA Results/Analysis, go to:  Results Table 
You can also go to our public website at FTDNA:   FTDNA Humphrey Project

Our original 4 I1a* members are of my lineage, tracing back to Michael Humphrey, born 1577, Honiton, Devon.  His son Michael, born 1620 in Lyme Regis, Dorset, immigrated to Connecticut in 1640. We have two other I1a* members, one surnamed Peet with a 24/25 match with our modal I1a* haplotype.

Two of our R1b members, kit#  18304 & 41586,  have a 25/25 match, and merged their family trees, having a common ancestor, David Humphreys, born ~ 1790, in Wales.

                                    ***** Previous updates at end of this page *****




The referenced graphs show distributions for our I1a* haplotype & others in the British Isles and Europe:

                                        Graphs of Capelli's British Isles data - 2004
                                        Graphs of Rootsi's European data - 2004




                      
*** Possible Migrations to England of Humphrey(s) ancestors  ***

Given the very high percentage of R1b in Ireland, Wales, Scotland,  and given the Celtic history in Europe, it seems likely that the indigenous Celtic population in the British Isles prior to the Roman era is a natural initial source of R1b in England today.  E3b & J2 populations may have come before or with the Romans, a currently popular notion, as well as afterwards.

Combining family verbal lore, surname linguistics, English & Norman history, we now have more evidence to support the supposition that our I1* line had Norwegian ancestors as recently as year 400, Norman ancestors from approximately year 900, & English ancestors, likely in southern England, the Channel Islands and/or Isle of Wight, circa 1066, & with the Norman invasion at Hastings. For several centuries, the surname Humphrey has been concentrated in the Southeast of England, East Anglia, and Yorkshire.  Currently, the surname Humphreys (or Humphries) is concentrated in Wales.

However, there are other logical possibilities supported by English history & the genetic results: 
(1)  Our ancestors were Norwegian Vikings migrating to Northwest England in the 10th & 11th centuries (possibly through Ireland),  eastward toward York, Norfolk, East Anglia, then south to Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, or (2) Danish/German ancestors arriving as Anglo/Saxons in the 5th & 6th centuries, settling in eastern England before the Viking invasions, (3) Older Germanic, Danish or Dutch tribes who settled the British Isles more than 2000 years ago, or (4)  Vikings arriving in the 9th, 10th & 11th centuries with the Danish Viking invasions & Danelaw.


Our I1* haplotype occurs in Capelli's data (2005) at frequencies of 6.47% in Norway & 5.26% in Denmark.  In Capelli's data York has the highest percentage of our I1a1 haplotype at 11% of the total, followed by 7.8% in Durness, northern Scotland,  6.8% in the Western Isles, 5.8% in Norfolk, & 5.6% in Penrith, Cumbria. Most of these are known to have been extensively settled by Norwegian Vikings.

The "I" haplogroup in York is 33% of the total sample, the highest concentration in any of the English, Scottish, or Irish regions.  In Capelli's 2004 data, the highest level of "I" was in Denmark/Germany at 39.5%, followed by 32.6% in York, 31% in Norfolk, and 28.4% in Norway.

Though it's currently thought that our I1* lineage split from it's parental I lineage in western Norway, perhaps 3000+ years ago, it's possible, given today's near-parity ocurrence in Denmark as well as Norway, that our I1* ancestors may have arrived with the Anglo-Saxons, or later with the Danish or NorwegianVikings, or with the Normans, circa 1066.  The Norman-influenced "Humphrey" form of our surname is most prevalent today in eastern England. 







Lyme Regis
Go To:  Results Table

FTDNA Humphrey surname project: (sign up here)
 



Y Chromosome Results: 12, 25, 37, & 67 markers


Our FTDNA surname project is young, and we are actively seeking Humphrey participants. Initially, I had 9 exact matches at 12 markers with members of the Sutton & Morton families. I also have a 24/25 match with Morton & Peet (they are 25/25), and all differences are 1-step "fast-moving" markers, shown below in red.  More Sutton data will appear in the near future. As of July 2, 2005, we have 3 distinct Humphrey lines, haplogroups "I1a*" & "R1b", as shown below.

Ongoing studies are sharpening estimates of mutation rates. The red markers below appear to change much faster than the others. There are pointers below to papers which give more detail than appears here. Meanwhile, we will continue to use all but the 464 markers as an indication of common ancestry in the surname timeframe, beginning in approximately year 1000 (tho the Humphrey surname origins, Hunfrei, etc, are several centuries earlier.  Once recent common ancestry is established, the 464 markers can be used to make finer distinctions, i.e., in the last ~7 generations.  *** Also, FTDNA now offers a 37-marker test upgrade & 67-marker test upgrade, for higher resolution matching.

The sequence of DNA markers below for each individual is that person's haplotype. Haplotypes can be mapped into Haplogroups, and recent and ongoing research of the quickly-growing international database of DNA test results has made it possible to map human population migrations, using haplogroups over the past 180,000 years. This is interesting to human historians, but generally, genealogists are interested in the past few centuries, and back to the "surname era" in various countries. See descriptions and turorials below for more details. There are web pointers below that reference more technical information.

The Haplogroups shown below are currently assessed by FTDNA to be "I", or "R1b". The Trace Genetics SNP test for P30 & P40 has verified that I'm I1a1, so it's very likely that all the members below who match me 12/12 & have DYS455=8 and YCAIIa,b=19,21 are also I1a*.

Haplogroup definition: all members of a Haplogroup are direct paternal descendants of a single man. All "R1b" have a forefather in common. All "I" have a forefather in common, different from that of the R1b group. UEP's (unique event polymorphisms) are the unique genetic events (mutations) that identify these ancestors.

The test results below, sets of DYS Markers (D = DNA, Y = Y-chromosome, S = segment), are called haplotypes. Currently, any given Haplogroup is comprised of many different haplotypes. The Haplogroups below are about 92% certain: a SNP (UEP) test is needed to confirm.

The DNA result table below is immediately after the "Search for cousins table".
 
For more detail about FTDNA SNP/Haplogroup testing see:  FTDNA Testing:


                                                               

 

 





FTDNA DYS RESULTS :



Each member's surname is followed by a "-", then some information about the most distant paternal ancestor known. Michael Humphrey's son Michael, born 1620 in Lyme Regis, Dorset, immigrated to Connecticut in 1640.

Members 18304 & 41586 were unaware of their common
male ancestry in Wales until they compared their family trees, after finding their exact Y-chromosome match at 25 markers.  The green haplogroups are confirmed by SNP testing,  the red are inferred from matching haplotypes with an SNP confirmed haplotype.

Three of our 4 E1b/E3b members match 12/12,  & the other matches 11/12.   One is getting a full SNP "backbone" SNP test from FTDNA.
--------------------

Soon we will have results for a direct male descendant of Jonas Humphrey, 1620, who immigrated from Wendover, Buckinghamshire to Massachusetts in 1635. We're looking for some close matches with other members.  Michael Humphrey of Lyme Regis, Dorset, 1620, and Jonas are the earliest known Humphrey male immigrants to America.








FTDNA HUMPHREY SURNAME PROJECT RESULTS





 
    DYS#
# Kit Most Distant Ancestor H
G
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
|
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
|
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y

a
C
D
Y

b
4
4
2
4
3
8
5
3
1
5
7
8
3
9
5
S
1
a
3
9
5
S
1
b
5
9
0
5
3
7
6
4
1
4
7
2
4
0
6
S
1
5
1
1
4
2
5
4
1
3
a
4
1
3
b
5
5
7
5
9
4
4
3
6
4
9
0
5
3
4
4
5
0
4
4
4
4
8
1
5
2
0
4
4
6
6
1
7
5
6
8
4
8
7
5
7
2
6
4
0
4
9
2
5
6
5
E1b1a  
1 99464   E1b1a 13 21 15 10 16 16 11 12 11 13 11 32 17 8 10 11 11 24 14 21 29 13 16 16 17                                                                                    
 
E1bE3bJonasHumphrey  
2 133321 Isaac Humphrey 1802-1870  E1b1b1 13 24 13 10 16 17 11 12 12 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 25 14 20 33 14 16 17 17 9 11 19 21 15 12 17 21 31 36 11 10                                                            
3 86870 Jonas Humphrey, 1587, Wendover, Buckinghamshire  E1b1b1 13 25 13 11 14 18 11 12 12 13 11 33 18 9 9 11 11 27 14 20 33 16 16 16 17 10 10 18 22 15 13 16 18 30 35 13 11                                                            
4 86056 Jonas Humphrey, 1587, Wendover, Buckinghamshire  E1b1b1 13 26 13 11 14 18 11 12 12 13 11 33 17 9 9 11 11 26 14 20 31 16 16 16 17 10 10 18 22 15 13 16 18 30 35 13 11                                                            
5 53677 thomas humphrey  E1b1b1 13 26 13 11 14 18 11 12 12 13 11 33 18 9 9 11 11 26 14 20 31 16 16 16 17 10 10 18 22 15 13 16 17 30 35 13 11                                                            
6 83358   E1b1b1 13 26 13 11 14 18 11 12 12 13 11 33 19 9 9 11 11 27 14 20 31 16 16 16 17 10 10 18 22 15 13 17 18 30 35 13 11                                                            
7 41818 Jonas Humphrey, 1587, Wendover, Buckinghamshire  E1b1b1 13 26 13 11 15 18 11 12 12 13 11 33                                                                                                              
 
Humphreys - unique I2b  
8 172789   I2b 14 20 15 10 15 15 11 13 11 13 12 31 15 8 10 11 11 25 14 20 26 11 14 14 15 11 9 19 21 14 14 17 20 34 37 12 10                                                            
 
I1  
9 97694 George Humphreys, b1819, Bedfordshire, England  I1 9 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 28 12 13 16 16 10 10 19 21 14 14 16 22 33 38 12 10                                                            
10 122857 William Humphrey, Wales  I1 13 22 14 10 14 14 11 16 11 12 11 28                                                                                                              
11 97951   I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29                                                                                                              
 
I1 Michael Humphrey  
12 36428 Henry Peet, born 1812, Wigan, Lancashire, England  I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 11 10 19 21 14 14 15 20 35 37 12 10                                                            
13 73613 Michael Humphrey, 1620, Lyme Regis, Dorset  I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16                                                                                    
14 26490 Michael Humphrey  I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 10 10 19 21 15 14 16 19 35 37 12 10 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 10 9 12 23 26 15 10 12 12 16 8 14 24 20 14 13 11 12 10 11 12 11
15 19745 Michael Humphrey  I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 10 10 19 21 15 14 16 19 36 37 12 10                                                            
16 162280 Michael Humphrey, 1620, Lyme Regis, Dorset  I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 10 10 19 21 15 14 16 19 36 37 12 10 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 10 9 12 23 26 15 10 12 12 16 8 14 24 20 14 13 11 12 10 11 12 11
17 17419 Michael Humphrey  I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 10 10 19 21 15 14 16 19 36 37 13 10                                                            
18 8242 Michael Humphrey, 1577, 1620, Honiton, Lyme Regis  I1 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 10 10 19 21 15 14 16 19 36 37 13 10 11 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 10 9 12 23 26 15 10 12 12 16 8 14 24 20 14 13 11 12 10 11 12 11
 
I2a/I1b  
19 65482 Herbert Humphries  I2a 13 24 16 11 15 15 11 13 13 13 11 33                                                                                                              
 
I2b  
20 71356 Alfred Humphrey born approx 1840, Switzerland  I2b1 14 22 16 10 15 15 11 13 11 13 12 29 16 8 10 11 11 26 15 19 28 11 14 14 14 11 10 19 19 16 17 18 19 33 36 12 10                                                            
21 170264   I2b1 14 23 17 11 15 16 11 13 11 13 12 29 15 8 9 11 11 26 15 20 26 11 11 14 15                                                                                    
22 100683 John Humphrey, before 1723, Wales?  I2b1 14 23 17 11 15 16 11 13 11 13 12 29 15 8 9 11 11 26 15 20 27 11 11 14 14 10 10 19 19 18 15 18 19 31 35 12 10                                                            
23 77834 John Humphrey,1798-1864,m1821-09-11,Antrim,Ireland  I2b1 14 23 17 11 16 16 11 13 11 13 12 29 15 8 9 11 11 26 15 20 26 11 11 14 15 10 10 19 19 17 15 17 18 31 35 12 10                                                            
24 139330   I2b 15 23 15 10 15 15 11 13 11 14 12 31                                                                                                              
 
R1a  
25 N2981 John Humphreys, ca. 1725, Washington County, TN  R1a1 13 25 15 10 11 14 12 10 10 13 11 32 15 9 10 11 11 25 14 19 33 12 14 14 17 11 11 19 23 15 16 18 19 34 40 12 11 11 8 17 17 8 12 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 10 12 12 13 8 14 23 22 12 13 11 14 11 11 14 13
26 114141 Sarah MacEachen Cape Breton N.S.  R1a1 13 26 16 10 12 14 12 12 10 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 23 14 20 34 13 15 15 15 11 11 19 23 15 16 17 17 36 42 14 11 11 8 17 17 8 11 10 8 11 10 12 22 22 15 11 12 12 13 8 13 23 21 12 12 11 13 11 11 12 13
 
R1b David Humphreys  
27 18304 David Humphreys, ca 1800, Wales  R1b1b2 13 25 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 11 11 11 25 15 19 30 14 15 15 17                                                                                    
28 41586 David Humphreys, ca 1800, Wales  R1b1b2 13 25 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 11 11 11 25 15 19 30 14 15 15 17 11 11 19 23 17 14 19 16 34 37 12 12                                                            
 
R1b Harry Humphries, 1874, Floyd County, Georgia  
29 48160 Harry Humphries, 1874, Floyd County, Georgia  R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 14 15 16 17 12 10 19 23 15 16 17 18 37 38 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 22 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 21 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
 
R1b John Humphries, died 1738  
30 52009 John Humphries, died 1738  R1b1b2 13 24 14 10 10 16 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9 9 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 10 10 19 23 14 15 18 17 36 38 11 12                                                            
31 16968 John Humphries  R1b1b2a1b 13 24 14 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9 9 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 10 10 19 23 14 15 18 17 36 37 11 12 11 9 15 15 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
32 77058 John Humphries, died 1738  R1b1b2 13 24 14 10 11 16 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9 9 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 10 10 19 22 14 15 18 17 36 37 11 12                                                            
33 140656 William Humphries b 1810/11, Spartanburg Co., SC  R1b1b2 13 24 14 10 11 16 12 12 12 13 13 29 16 9 9 11 11 26 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 10 10 19 23 14 15 18 17 36 37 11 12 11 9 15 15 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 23 23 16 10 12 12 15 8 12 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
 
R1b John Jefferson Humphries  
34 154803   R1b1b2 12 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 18 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 15 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 17 37 37 12 12                                                            
 
R1b Sam/John Humphries  
35 72831 John Humphries, Northern Neck of Va. b. abt. 1725  R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 11 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 30 15 16 17 17 10 11 19 23 16 15 17 14 38 39 12 12                                                            
36 33717 Samueol Jesse Humphries, Stafford Va. b. 1795  R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 11 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 30 15 16 17 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 17 14 38 39 12 12                                                            
37 173552   R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 16 12 12 11 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 30 15 16 17 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 17 14 38 39 12 12                                                            
 
R1b Samuel Humphries  
38 N50930   - 11 24 15 11 13 14 12 13 12 13 13 30                                                                                                              
39 N5556 William James Humphreys bn 1837 Tn  R1b1 11 24 15 11 13 14 12 13 12 13 13 30 14 9 9 11 11 26 15 18 30 14 14 14 16                                                                                    
40 67723 Samuel Humphries (b. about 1760, location unknown)  R1b1 11 24 15 11 13 14 12 13 12 13 13 30 14 9 9 11 11 26 15 18 30 14 14 14 16 10 11 18 23 14 16 19 16 34 34 15 11 11 8 15 16 8 10 10 8 11 9 12 19 21 17 10 12 12 13 8 12 25 21 13 11 11 13 12 11 12 12
 
R1b.WAMH  
41 17727 Nelson  R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 13 12 12 12 13 13 30 19 9 10 11 11 26 15 21 29 14 15 17 18                                                                                    
42 74975 Griffith Humphrey, b.1792, Llangwnnadl, Caernarvon  R1b1b2a1b5 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 16 17 17 10 11 19 23 15 15 19 17 37 41 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 22 22 16 10 13 12 15 8 12 24 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 12
43 97924   R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 11 13 13 29                                                                                                              
44 N2194   R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 11 13 13 29                                                                                                              
45 N66018   R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 11 13 13 29                                                                                                              
46 68941 Jno Humphries, b 1790-? Virginia  R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 15 12 12 13 13 13 29 18 9 9 11 11 25 16 20 29 17 17 17 17 11 11 19 23 15 15 17 18 38 38 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 14 8 12 23 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 13 12
47 N5136   R1b1b2 13 25 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29                                                                                                              
 
R1b1b2  
48 96588   - 12 24 14 10 12 14 12 12 11 13 13 28 16 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 28 14 15 16 17 10 12 19 23 16 16 18 17 36 40 12 12 11 9 16 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 21 23 16 10 12 12 18 8 13 22 22 13 12 10 13 11 11 12 0**
49 85629 William Pender b. ca. 1785-1835, NY  R1b1b2 13 24 13 10 11 15 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 27 15 19 29 15 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 16 15 18 17 37 37 12 12                                                            
50 51784 Robert Humphreys, b.c. 1785, Pwllheli, Wales  R1b1b2a1b5 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 29 15 15 17 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 19 17 37 38 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 21 23 15 10 12 12 15 8 13 22 20 13 12 11 13 11 11 12 13
51 74979   R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 12 14 12 12 12 13 13 29                                                                                                              
52 72372 Arthur Humphrey, b.c. 1663, England  R1b1b2 13 24 14 12 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29                                                                                                              
53 N71842   R1b1b2 13 25 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29                                                                                                              
54 78117 Humphrey Humphries, died 1826, age 66, Shropshire  R1b1b2 13 25 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 30 15 15 16 17 11 11 19 23 15 15 20 16 38 38 12 12                                                            
55 180256 Thomas Humphrey, 1694 - Sept. 20, 1748  R1b1b2 14 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30                                                                                                              
56 144923   R1b1b2 14 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 16 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 16 37 37 12 12                                                            
57 76982   R1b1b2 14 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 31 16 9 9 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 15 17                                                                                    
 
R1b1b2 - Henry Humphreys before 1716 - Ireland<  
58 163564 Henry Humphreys, b.c. 1716, Ireland  R1b1b2 13 25 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 20 30 15 15 17 17 10 11 19 23 16 15 17 16 35 39 13 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 12 22 23 17 10 12 12 16 8 13 22 21 13 13 11 14 11 11 12 12
59 142620   R1b1b2 13 25 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 15 20 30 15 15 17 17 10 11 19 23 16 15 19 16 35 39 12 12                                                            
 
R1b1b2 - Joseph Parrish - 1792  
60 N52803 Joseph Parrish 1792  R1b1b2 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 15 17 11 11 19 23 15 15 18 18 38 38 12 12 11 9 15 16 8 10 10 8 10 10 0** 22 23 16 10 12 10 18 8 12 22 21 13 12 11 14 11 11 12 12
 
Sutton - unique E1b1b1  
61 115132 james sutton1735  E1b1b1 14 24 13 10 18 18 11 12 12 13 12 30 15 9 9 11 11 26 14 20 32 14 14 17 17 9 11 19 21 16 12 18 21 30 34 11 10 10 8 15 15 8 11 10 8 12 10 0** 23 24 18 11 12 12 16 7 12 24 18 13 14 12 14 11 11 11 11

**A value "0" for any marker indicates that the lab reported a null value or no result for this marker. All cases of this nature are retested multiple times by the lab to confirm their accuracy. Mutations causing null values are infrequent, but are passed on to offspring just like other mutations, so related male lineages such as a father and son would likely share any null values.








HUMPHREY MULTI-FAMILY PROJECT RESULTS



 
DYS#
Kit Name *
H
a
p
l
o
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
|
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
|
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
G
A
T
A

H
4
Y
C
A

I
I

a
Y
C
A

I
I

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y

a
C
D
Y

b
4
4
2
4
3
8
 
Morton - I1a*  
15467 Morton1
I1a 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 11 10 19 21 14 14 16 21 34 37 12 10

Morton2
I1a 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 12 11 28 15 8 9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16 10 10 19 21 15 14 16 22
34 37 12 10
 
Suttom - I1a*
 
4141 Sutton1  I1a 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8
9
8
11 23 16 22
28 12 13 15 16  10  10  19  21  14  14  16  21  35  39  10  10
4933 Sutton2  I1a 13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15
 8   9
 8
11
 23  16  22  28  12  13  15  16  10  10  19  21  15  15  16  21  35  39  12  10
4140 Sutton3 I1a 13 23 14 11 10 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8
9
8
11 23 16 22
28
12 13 15 16











13712 Sutton4  I1a 13 23 14 11 10 14 11 14 11 13 11 29  15  8
 9
 8
 11  23  16  22  28  12  13  15  16                        
 
 





      The azure color cells indicate differences with the currently presumed I1a* Humphrey group's modal haplotype
       using 25 markers - (Humphrey1,2,3,4)  =  

I1a*  13 23 14 10 14 14 11
14 11 13 11 29 15  8
9 8 11 23 16 20 27 12 14 15 16

  

                                                    

      Four of our 10 R1b members belong to the WAMH (Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype), the modal haplotype of
      R1b, which is the most predominant haplogroup in Europe.  Celtic populations are likely in the R1b haplogroup. Two
      of our R1b members match 25/25 (18304 & 41568), and merged their family trees to find a common ancestor,
      David Humphreys, born ~ 1790 in Wales.  Our R1b member, kit# N5556 (from the Nations Geographic Genographic
      Project), has a unique haplotype, and his R1b was verified with an SNP test.

      We are encouraging our NG R1b members with 12 marker results to upgrade to 25 or 27 markers.  N5556 was
      SNP tested by FTDNA, since his haplotype is so distinctive, and he was verified as P25+ for R1b. Currently, an
      upgrade for this person is less critical, though it would be informative for human population studies.

      We see 4 WAMH R1b lines, including a pair of 12/12 matches. For these 4, the most reasonable
      modal value is WAMH:  DYS 19, 388, 390, 391, 392, 393 = 14, 12, 24, 11, 13, 13

           


**  has confirmed the estimated "I" haplogroup with the FTDNA SNP test. Actual testing is performed in a
      laboratory at the University of Arizona. There's current evidence, subject to ongoing research, that 455=8
      & YCAIIa,b = 19,21 are strongly correlated with haplogroup I1a*. Many of the associated population groups
      may have "wintered" in France's Dordogne, nothern Spain, & in Moravia during the Last Glacial Maximum,
      then later moved northward into Scandinavia, (where their ancestors may have lived prior to the LGM). See
      McDonald monographs discussed in the RootsWeb genetic geneaology discussion group & the recent papers
      by Dr. Rootsi et al,  "Phylogeography of Haplogroup I ...",  and  "TheWestern and Eastern Roots of the
      Saami..."

 




 


Statistics indicate the 22/25 match of #8242 and several Liles members (data not shown here) predicts a common ancestor in the "surname era", circa 1100.  Our Humphrey line has a genealogical paper trail to areas in southern England & the Isle of Wight where English historical records indicate individuals with both our surnames owned property in 1086. Our Humphrey paper trail goes back to 1577, and we are currently researching the Honiton area in Devon, and Southeastern England to attempt to trace further back in time. Also, the Fluxus Phylogenetic network diagram which follows the TMCRA graphs, calculates a theoretical common ancestor haplotype, "mv1", and indicates that our Humphrey result, (#8242), and the closely matching Liles, Peet, & Morton results are only 1 marker mutation distant from "mv1", when we use 25 markers.  At 37 markers the separation of each family from mv1 increases to  2 mutations. More details are given with the Phylogenetic diagram, and more will follow in the future.

Following an idea from Doug Mumma's paper, DNA.Mumma.pdf, we had selected an ancestral haplotype for our multi-family: Humphrey, Suttons,  Mortons, & Peet, eliminating the fast-moving markers, DYS458 & DYS449 (and the 464's mentioned above), leaving a total of 19 markers as a proposed "core" haplotype.  Sutton's "I" results have a single, 2-step difference at DYS448. This proposed ancestral haplotype is different from the multi-family modal haplotype suggested by Fluxus, as shown below, using 21 markers. Either of these haplotypes suggests a TMRCA in the surname era in Europe, perhaps as recently as 1200. We will continue to refine this analysis as we gather more data.

Meanwhile, until we learn more about FTDNA's current set of marker mutation rates, instead of estimating an multi-family ancestral halpotype, we prefer to estimate a TMRCA to an ancestor common to our set of families by extrapolating the current observed average mutation rates of .0020, and .0025 for our respective 37 markers. The current estimate would be (20-25) generations ago. Our observed generation average over the past 10 generations is 33 years, so in years, we estimate the TMRCA to be (660-825) years ago. The statistical uncertaintity for Liles = .00077, and for Humphrey is .00117.


 Hgrp        460         GataH4          YCAIIa,b        456           607         576         570                 CDYa,b           442        438

I1a*
10
10  19  21  15  14  16  19  36
 37  12
10    

Proposed I1a* Humphrey ancestral haplotype - markers (26-37) - subject to change as more data accumulates:





H
p
g
r
p
3   9   3 
3
9

1

3
9

3
8
5

3
8
5

4
2

3
8

4
3

3
8
9
i

3
9
2
3
8
9
i
2
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5

4
5

4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4

                                       
13 23 14 10 14 14 11 14 11 13 11 29 8 9 8 11 23 16 20


Proposed Multi-family haplotype - subject to modification as we gather more test results.


A preliminary analysis of the 37 marker results indicate approximately the same TMRCA time, perhaps a bit further back in time. We will continue the analysis as more information becomes available about the mutation rates for the additional 12 markers, and as we gather more test results.

However, an alternative analysis, based on our recent 37 marker results, indicates that we've had 1 mutation at DYS442 in 4 generations (8 transmission events). Tho the statistical prediction would be pr = .6 of 0 mutation, and pr = .3  of 1 mutation, the actual observed result is exactly 1 mutation. If we further *assume* that the ratio of 1 mutation/8 transmission events, then the specific data implies 1 mutation every ~110 years, assuming we can project forward the average generation separation of ~ 34 years. And if we further assume that  Suttons, Morton, Peet, Liles, and we have a common male ancestor in the surname era, then we might expect the TMRCA to be (400 - 600) years ago. We're actively pursuing the paper trails.

We're seeking participants for testing to reveal more of the genealogical relationships within the Humphrey family, among  Sutton, Morton, and Humphrey families, and to get more precise times to our common ancestors. (The Sutton families also have surname family projects with FTDNA
 
                                                            FTDNA Humphrey surname website: (sign up here)


 



 

Phylogenetic Network Diagrams
(using the 25 marker results)

Humphrey & Sutton families:

 
Initial version for Humphrey & Sutton FTDNA results. We will continue the analysis as we accumulate new data and update these diagrams accordingly. This initial Fluxus analysis indicates a common ancestor for Humphrey and Sutton members, (700 - 1200) years ago: our 2 family haplotypes differ by only 1 marker from the ancestral modal type, "mv1", depicted below.

 
 




     (1A) Humphrey   (2A),      (3A) Sutton  :       Haplogroup "I"
                                   (2C),    *(3B) Sutton  :       Haplogroup "R1b"

 

 

Phylogenetic network diagram by Fluxus software - this shows Humphrey & Sutton YSTR DNA haplotypes are most likely 1, 1, & 2 steps away from the ancestral modal haplotype, "mv1". This pertains to the "I" haplogroup members of these families. The other modal haplotype, "mv2",  is ancestral to the "R1b" haplogroup members Suttons.  This diagram was produced with Fluxus software, using the Median Join (MJ) calculations on the input data (haplotypes) - the 464 markers were temporarily set aside, a suggestion by Bennett Greenspan at FTDNA. We plan to incorporate them after we have more test results from our Humphrey family, to make finer distinctions.

The Fluxus TMRCA (Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor) calculations for the "I" Haplogroup data is (500 - 750) years BP, if we assume a priori, a common genetic ancestor. Current evidence strongly supports this conclusion. (It's theoretically possible that genetic "convergence" might explain the close matching, but genealogical & historical data support the notion of a familial common ancestry, circa 1100). More historical information will appear in the Humphrey Genealogy page in the near future.

 

 

 


 

This network diagram includes the Morton family result.  These two results share the {12, 28} values for markers (389i, 389ii), which is apparently more characteristic of "R1b" than "I" haplogroups, but the current assessment remains haplogroup "I1a*" for these results. The DYS values aren't shown here - for a cleaner view. The line lengths are proportional to the number of DYS markers, and the long distance from (2A) to (mv2), reflects a "long" genetic distance between haplogroup I & R1b, more than 20000 years ago. More details to appear in the future.


 

 

This network diagram uses a root-mean (RMF) algorithm to caculate the nodal relationships. Experience indicates this to be a more robust method than the MJ (Median Join). This analysis makes the same conclusion about the haplogroup I results and provides more median vectors joining those with the R1b haplogroup results. The RMF yields a different relationship from (mv1) to (3B), compared to the MJ diagram. I expect to improve these diagrams as we learn more about the individual marker mutation rates: we can weight the markers appropriately for more accuracy.  More details to appear in the future.

**************************************************************************


 

 

Interpreting the Y chromosome test results:

 

An individual's test results have meaning only when compared with others. Only by comparing can you get more information about your genetic paternal ancestors. When you match someone else, it will indicate that you and the person you match share a common ancestor. The TMRCA (Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor) of an exact (or very close) match is a function of the number of markers, and is expressed as a probability with a specified Confidence Level. See the charts below for more details.

The Y-Chromosome is passed from father to son. The tutorial below, courtesy FTDNA, has more details. Usually, a father passes an exact copy of his Y-Chromosome to his son. This means that the markers of the son are identical to those of his father, i.e., their marker sequences, or haplotypes, are the same. Rarely, a marker will change (mutate), and increase by one, an addition, or decrease by one, a deletion. These are called 1-step mutations.

Mutations are random. It's possible for two distant cousins to match exactly on all markers while two brothers might not match exactly. Because of the random nature of mutations we must use statistics and probability to estimate the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA). Calculations of TMRCA are complex and depend on the mutation rate and the true number of mutations. (E.G., how do we know that DYS393 = 23, didn't go to 24 and subsequently back down to 23 in a 500 year period? Research shows this case to be much less likely than an increase. Currently we make some simplifying assumptions. For more detail, see the TMRCA material by Bruce Walsh at the University of Arizona. Among the assumptions are the following:


Rate of Mutation = .002: This assumes that any given marker has a .002 chance of mutating with each generation. In other words, we could expect any marker to mutate once in 500 generations. The rate of .002 is considered conservative and is the average of a number of studies. E.G., John Chandler of Columbia University has computed an average of .0023, using a large database comprising many surname studies. Some FTDNA surname project managers have observed higher rates, e.g. .004, which result in a TMRCA that is smaller. Bruce Walsh, at the University of Arizona, has some excellent tables which show results for .002 and .004 as assumed rates. See Bruce Walsh TMRCA tables.

Update 11/19/04:  In FTDNA's 1st DNA genealogy conference recently in Houston, mutation rates were updated, generally faster, from research done jointly with Dr. Hammer at the University of Arizona: FTDNA's "panels" of markers (1:12), (13:15), (26:37) were assessed at rates of .00399, .00481, .00748, respectively. The average for all 37 was .0058.
*****  In  our Humphrey study, our 3 mutations in 10 generations (40 transmission events) implies that a mutation rate of .0023 is the "best" fit.  Of course, this is only a single instance, but we know that  several surname projects, e.g.,  Doug Mumma's, have seen family mutation rates higher than those which are published & generally accepted. There's still considerable debate, as we might expect from an international database that has grown from small numbers to a current level that's sufficient to begin to do "hard science".**********

Number of mutations: This model counts any change in a marker as a single mutation. Each marker is scored as either a match or a non-match. If a marker does not match it is assumed to be a single mutation. This method a counting mutations may result in underestimating the TMRCA.

Another thought about marker mutations: most of the statistical analysis currently assumes that the {12, 25, 37} markers tested by FTDNA share a common mutation rate, but it's increasingly clear that this is not the case. The DYS markers in the result table that are definitely known to mutate faster than others are shown in red font. The remaining markers do not mutate at a identical rate. It will take more data to confirm current differences in observed rates, but for now we make simplifying assumptions and use statistical analysis to make general statements and predictions about TMRCA, haplogroup evolution and geographical migrations. There's very lively controversy about this question. For this and other related topics, you can subscribe and/or read the archives of: GENEALOGY-DNA-L@rootsweb.com.

 

 


TMRCA GRAPHS (Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor):




These graphs below illustrate the probabilities for the time to the most recent common ancestor, (TMRCA) based on exact matches, ranging from 12 to 49 marker Y-chromosome test results. The commonly accepted average time for a generation is 25 years. However, our Humphrey average is 33 years for the 11 generations to Michael Humphrey in Lyme Regis. If we *assume* this average for the past 30 generations, the time span is 999 years, whereas a generally assumed 25 years/generation would imply 750 years for another family. It's impossible to know the know the actual truth in the vast majority of cases.  Meanwhile, we make statistical inferences and hopefully we will continue to collect data.


 


 
 



The Confidence Level ( probability ) is 50% for the graph above, which depicts the number of generations back to the MRCA, as a function of the number of matching markers.








 
 


The graph above shows the number of generations back to the MRCA, for 12, 25, & 37 marker exact matches, depicting Confidence Level (probability %), as a function of TMCRA (in generations). For example, with 37/37 there is a 50% probability that the MRCA was no longer than 5 generations, and a 90% probability that the MRCA was within the last 16 generations. Compare these with 25 and 12 -- with 25 markers, there is a 50% probability that the MRCA was within the last 7 generations, while with 12 markers, there is a 50% probability that the MRCA was within the last 14.5 generations.


 
 

The graph above shows the probablity (%) of a common ancestor, assuming {20-25}/25 matches, as a function of the number of generations back to the ancestor.  (courtesy David Roper)

********************************************************************

 

 


 


DNA Tutorial, courtesy FTDNA & John Blair's DNA101:

(excerpt)



 

DNA:

 

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical inside the nucleus of all cells that carries the genetic instructions for making living organisms. A DNA molecule consists of two strands that wrap around each other to resemble a twisted ladder. The sides are made of sugar and phosphate molecules. The “rungs” are made of nitrogen-containing chemicals called bases. Each strand is composed of one sugar molecule, one phosphate molecule, and a base. Four different bases are present in DNA - adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The particular order of the bases arranged along the sugar - phosphate backbone is called the DNA sequeence; the sequence specifies the exact genetic instructions required to create a particular organism with its own unique traits.

Each strand of the DNA molecule is held together at its base by a weak bond. The four bases pair in a set manner: Adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T), while cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). These pairs of bases are known as Base Pairs (bp).


These Base Pairs (bp) are the basis of Y-chromosome testing.


Chromosomes

Chromosomes are paired threadlike "packages" of long segments of DNA contained within the nucleus of each cell. In humans there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. In 22 pairs, both members are essentially identical, one deriving from the individual's mother, the other from the father. The 23rd pair is different. In females this pair has two like chromosomes called "X". In males it comprises one "X" and one "Y," two very dissimilar chromosomes. It is these chromosome differences which determine sex.

The Y-Chromosome

Human sex is determined by the X and Y chromosomes. A female has 2 X-Chromosomes and a male has an X and a Y-Chromosome. When a child is conceived it gets one chromosome from its mother and one chromosome from its father. The chromosome from the mother will always be an X, but the chromosome from the father may be either X or Y. If the child gets the X she will a girl, if the child gets the Y he will be a boy.


This Y-Chromosome has certain unique features:

The presence of a Y-Chromosome causes maleness. This little chromosome, about 2% of a father's genetic contribution to his sons, programs the early embryo to develop as a male. It is transmitted from fathers only to their sons. Most of the Y-Chromosome is inherited as an integral unit passed without alteration from father to sons, and to their sons, and so on, unaffected by exchange or any other influence of the X-Chromosome that came from the mother. It is the only nuclear chromosome that escapes the continual reshuffling of parental genes during the process of sex cell production.

It is these unique features that make the Y-Chromosome useful to genealogists.

Testing the Y-Chromosome


The Y-Chromosome has definable segments of DNA with known genetic characteristics. These segments are known as Markers. These markers occur at an identifiable physical location on a chromosome known as a Locus. Each marker is designated by a number (known as DYS#), according to international conventions. You will often find the terms Marker and Locus used interchangeably, but technically the Marker is what is tested and the Locus is where the marker is located on the chromosome.

Although there are several types of markers used in DNA studies, the Y-Chromosome test uses only one type. The marker used is called a Short Tandem Repeat (STR). STRs are short sequences of DNA, (usually 2, 3, 4, or 5 base pairs long), that are repeated numerous times in a head-tail manner. The 16 base pair sequence of "gatagatagatagata" would represent 4 repeats of the sequence "gata". These repeats are referred to as Allele. The variation of the number of repeats of each marker enables discrimination between individuals.

 

 

 

 


                                                               Haplogroups :       updated, 7/11/04

         Brief description of most current Y-chromosome haplogroups - (source: David Faux,  Larry Sutton,
         Ken Nordtvedt, & paper by Dr. Rootsi, et. al., AJHG, "Phyleogeography of ... Haplogroup I ..., & 
         RootsWeb DNA discussion group, 2004)


Haplogroups - Notes

I,I1, I1*:  Common in the Scandinavian/Viking populations, prevalent in northwestern Europe.
I1b, I1b2:    Likely split from other I subclades in the western Balkans, "wintered LGM" with other
                  I subclades in Franco/Iberia. Ref. Rootsi paper. Current high% in Sardinia.
I1c:             Likely shares with I1a & I1b, a common Franco/Iberian habitat, post-LGM.
E1b:        Believed to have evolved in the Middle East, (Semitic), or Meditereanean
R1a:       There's solid evidence that R1a is prevalent in western Norway in the "Viking era", and is
              today. Likely originated in the Kurgan culture of the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black
              and Caspian Seas.
R1b:       Most common haplogroup in Europe. It contains the Atlantic modal haplotype. Prevalent in
              Celtic & Basque areas: Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Galicia, Brittany, Cornwall
C:           Found throughout mainland Asia, the south Pacific, and at low frequency in Native American populations.
C3:         Southeast or central Asia origination.
O:           Likely to have originated in southern east Asia and subsequently expanded to all of east Asia
J2:          Northern portion of the Fertile Cresent. Cohen model haplotype. (Semitic).
D1:         Found at highest frequencies in Middle Eastern and north African populations where it most likely evolved.
Q:          Central Asia origination. Migrated though Altai/Baikel region of northern Eurasia.
O2:         Has two primary lines, the 465 line and the M95 line. Both lines are found in Asia.
Q3:         Native American


 
 
 


Historical Notes for I, R1b, R1a (courtesy David Faux, Ken Nordtvedt, & Rootsi paper, 2004.)

           updated 7/11/04

 

Haplogroup  I (Hg2, P19*, M170) "I" is found at very low levels in the Celtic areas (Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, northwestern Spain, etc.) and at relatively high levels in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland.  It likely originated among the group who "wintered" in Franco/Iberia & western Balkans during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). As the glaciers retreated, people with this haplotype, together wth many others, moved northward.  Today, Iceland has about 40% "I", while Shetland and Orkney have only about 25% the I haplotypes relative to these other countries.  For those who possess an I haplotype, it is uncertain whether this DNA signature reflects and Anglo/Saxon, Danish Viking or Norse heritage, though  the values of DYS390 suggest a 22 for Anglo Saxon Territory and a 23 for Norse Viking territory. Ken Nordtvedt has strengthened this hypothesis with recent haplotype-group searches in the international YHRD database. A recent paper has revealed a Dinaric (e.g., Croatia) modal I haplotype and a Northern European I modal haplotype (based on repeats on 5 DYS markers).  In Orkney (and therefore presumably in Shetland), I is "diagnostic of Viking invaders." As future data accumulates, we should be able to discern with more accuracy the haplogroup characteristics of many countries and regions, e.g. Normans, Shetland Islanders, etc. We expect the number of  subclades to increase as SNP dicoveries increase.

Haplogroup  R1b (Hg1, P25*) It appears that during the Last Glacial Maximum (20000 years ago) R1b haplotypes over wintered in Northern Spain, and after the glacial retreat about 12000 years ago, began a migration to the north in large numbers, and to the east in declining numbers (although probably arriving in Spain from the east 30,000 years ago among the paleolithic or "old stone age" peoples considered to be aboriginal to Europe).  This haplogroup is characteristic of pre-Celtic and Celtic populations including large areas of Scotland, probably including Orkney and Shetland 4000 years ago. R1b is the most common haplogroup in Europe and its frequency changes in a cline from west (where it reaches a saturation point of almost 100% in areas of Western Ireland) to east (where it become uncommon in parts of Eastern Europe and virtually disappears beyond the Middle East).  A R1b haplotype is very difficult to interpret in that they are found at relatively high frequency in the areas where the Anglo/Saxon and Danish "invaders" originally called home (e.g., 55% in Friesland), and up to 30% in Norway.  Thus a R1b haplotype makes it very challenging to interpret the origin of a family with this DNA signature.  Marker DYS385a/b repeats of 11,14 are typical.  However in Norway (and Iceland) profiles of 13/17 and 13/18 have never (or seldom) been seen in Celtic people, but are found uniquely in Norway and the countries they colonized.
     

 Haplogroup R1a (Hg3, SRY) R1a is the only haplogroup that can currently be unequivocably linked to a Norse ancestry, specifically to the west coast of Norway.  It is virtually unknown in the Celtic regions such as Ireland, and barely makes an appearance in Friesland, but occurs at a relatively high frequency in Norway.  Curiously those who have a haplotype within this haplogroup often have fairly close matches in Mongolia, India, Siberia, and Eastern Europe.  It is believed that the haplogroup emerged among the Kurgan peoples of the Eurasian Stepes (the Ukraine), where their ancestors had lived during the Last Glacial Maximum.  From there they spread north and east.
  

 

 


 

Human Migration Map (Excepts from DNA Master class, courtesy DNA Heritage, Alastair Greenshields)

DNA Heritage Master Class2

 

 

 

This map depicts the historical migration paths of our ancestors - years BP are in ()'s.

 

The topic of haplogroups is becoming an increasing source of interest with those that have received their Y-chromosome haplotypes. This is because your haplotype can give you hints to your ancient origins.

We’ve all seen illustrations that show the evolutionary branches of primates, and how millions of years ago, chimpanzees, gorillas, gibbons, and orang-utans diverged off from our primate family tree.

Man (hominids) went off in a different evolutionary direction, and there have been several different lines that have since died off, Neanderthals being a notable example. With his origins in Africa, modern man has spread himself around the globe. As he did so, he adapted to his surroundings. These adaptations can be seen in the lightened skin colour due to the lack of sun away from the equator, stockier build as observed in peoples in the Arctic regions to maintain body-heat, and better oxygen absorption capability as seen in inhabitants of mountainous, oxygen-poor regions.


 

 

The first image (Map 1) shows Palaeolithic Europe 18,000 years ago in the grip of the last ice age. Glacial ice 2km thick covers much of Northern Europe and the Alps. Sea levels are approx. 125m lower than today and the coastline differs slightly from the present day. For example, Britain and Ireland would have been connected to continental Europe (not shown on map).


 

 

If we fast forward to 12,000 years ago (Map 2), the ice has retreated and the land has become much more supportive to life. Many animal species have returned to inhabit the land, although the snake, harvest mouse and mole never made it as far as Ireland before the land bridges re-flooded (ever wondered why there are no snakes in Ireland?).


 

 

 

 

Around 8,000 years ago (Map 3), the Neolithic peoples of the Middle East that had developed the new technology of agriculture began moving into Europe. There were several haplogroups involved, mainly E3b, F, J2 and G2.

These Neolithic haplogroups came in several waves over time and are found predominantly along the Mediterranean coast. Around 20% of the present-day population are from these Neolithic haplogroups. What is interesting to note is that the agricultural technology spread much further than the people who first 'invented' it.

A little later, around 4,500 years ago, Haplogroup N3 began moving across from west of the Ural mountains. Haplogroup N3 follows closely the spread of the Finno-Ugric languages.

 

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Y Chromosome Haplogroup Tree (YTREE)

 

This is pointer to a large, detailed diagram which depicts the Y chromosome haplogroup tree. You can view various portions of this *.PDF image by using the scroll bars or magnification. It shows the evolution, beginning at the far left, of the Y chromosome haplogroups of homo sapiens. Each of the branches, as we move to the right, represents a clan, or haplogroup, generated by a single SNP mutation in some ale ancestor in the distant past. Time moves from left to right, and the haplogroups become ever more specific, defined by more SNP mutations. There's no consistent horizontal time scale: each of the horizontal lines can proceed at a different rate. To track human population migrations, it's highly desirable for the SNP tests to become more specific, narrowing the haplogroups, so that with sufficient international data, we can trace the historical migrations of these haplogroups (or clans) through time and geography. For more detail, see the recent book: The Real Eve, by Stephen Oppenheimer.

Courtesy Bonnie Schrack and her excellent website at: http://ancientrootsresearch.com where she describes the mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup trees as the family trees of all humanity. The YTREE image was created by Dr. Michael Hammer and Nathan Ellis of the Y Chromosome Consortium. Dr. Hammer is at the University of Arizona.

 

YTREE


 

Search for cousins in the Michael Humphrey line:

 

Apparently, we have no living 4th, 6th, or 7th paternal-line male cousins. The paternal lines from our GGgrandfather and GGGgrandfather have "daughtered out", or these male ancestors had no children. We're in touch with our 3 remaining 2nd paternal-line male cousins and hope to have some DNA test results in the near future.

Meanwhile, we continue to search for 5th, 8th, and more distant cousins. (And, if others surface, we'll be surprised & very happy!)

Here's a list of our male ancestors back to Michael and some of their male descendants. The phrase "male cousins" below means paternal-line male cousins who are descendants of Michael Humphrey:


Myron (Mike) Humphrey  - Chickasha Okla/San Mateo, California

Edwin Humphrey b. 1913 - Chickasha, Oklahoma

Myron E. Humphrey b. 1884 - Abilene, Kansas & Oklahoma

Edwin D. Humphrey b. 1855 - Springwater, New York, & Kansas

Correll Myron Humphrey, b. 1824 - Springwater, New York

Ozias Humphrey, Jr., b. 1789 - Simsbury, Connecticut

Ozias Humphrey, Sr., b. 1763 - Simsbury, Connecticut

Hezekiah Humphrey, b. 1718 - Simsbury, Connecticut

Samuel Humphrey, b. 1684 - Simsbury, Connecticut

John Humphrey, b. 1650 - Simsbury, Connecticut

Michael Humphrey, b. 1620 - Lyme Regis, Dorset, England

Michael Humphrey, b. 1577 - Honiton, Devon, England     OR
Michael Humphrey, b. 1569 - Chaldon, Dorset, England


Search for Cousins

Below is a list of the known male descendants of these direct paternal ancestors and their states of residence. We are actively seeking living descendants for all these who are listed.


GGrandfather: Edwin D. Humphrey b. 1855 - sons: Myron, Gilbert, Karl. Gilbert had no children, Karl had sons: Karl, Jr., and Tom, b. 1913. Karl, J.r died unmarried. Edwin lived in Springwater, N.Y., and Abilene, Kansas.


Tom had 3 sons: Tom Jr., Karl, and Michael. These are our 2nd cousins. They live in Nevada, Texas, and Maryland.


GGGrandfather: Correll Myron Humphrey, b. 1824, Simsbury, CT. - sons: Edwin D., Henry Wilson, Herbert Lincoln, William Erwin. Henry Wilson had a son, Theodore (Ted), who had sons: William, Roger, and Herbert Myron.  Roger has a son, Mark, who lives near the farm. These are our 3rd cousins, living in New York. Correll Myron lived in Springwater, NY, after 1836.


GGGGrandfather: Ozias Humphrey, Jr., b. 1789, Simsbury, CT. - sons: Correll Myron, Harvey Douglass, & Charles. Harvey Douglass had 2 sons: Charles Odell and Douglass O. Ozias lived in Springwater, N.Y., after 1836.
Charles had 3 sons: Ray, Charles, Arthur. Descendants are potential 4th cousins.


GGGGGrandfather: Ozias Humphrey, Sr., b. 1763, Simsbury, Ct. - sons: Harlow, Ozias Jr, and Lyman. Harlow had no sons, i.e., we can't find any records. Lyman had sons: George, John, and Lyman Underwood of Kansas.
George had a son, George Lyman. Descendants are potential 5th cousins.
Lyman Underwood had 4 sons: John, Lyman Leonard, Abraham Lincoln, and Edward Henry. It appears that only Abraham may have had surviving sons. Descendants of Lyman Leonard, & Abraham are potential 5th male cousins.


GGGGGGrandfather: Hezekiah Humphrey, b. 1718, Simsbury, CT. - sons: Hezekiah, Samuel, and Ozias. Hezekiah and Samuel died unmarried, so -
We have no potential 6th male cousins.


GGGGGGGrandfather: Samuel Humphrey, b. 1684, Simsbury, CT. - sons: Samuel and Hezekiah. Samuel died unmarried:
We have no potential 7th male cousins.


GGGGGGGGrandfather: John Humphrey, b. 1650, in Windsor, Ct., had sons: John, Thomas, Nathaniel, Samuel, Joseph.

There are many male descendants of these sons. Among them are: Willis Dwight, Frank, Walter Dwight, William Dwight, Edward, Charles Wesely, Mark Newton, John Ames,
John Dudley, Charles Alfred, Robert Edward, Elmer Ellsworth, George Emery, James Mills, Leroy Edward, Walter Allen, Herbert Van Ness, Lester Cornelius, & Allen Beaumont, John Jay, Alfred ernst, Arthur Edmund, Horace James, Jay Phelps Humphrey, in New York and CT.

James Bird, Charles Mark,
Joseph Orson, Clarence Alfred, Edwin Jonathan, Hubert Benjamin, and Hubert Humphrey in Ohio.

John Jay, Edward Dennis, and Hoyt Humphrey in Missouri & Illinois
.

Harvey Hiram Humphrey in Indiana.

David Wells, William Sheldon, Charles Jewett, Seth King, Henry King, Wells King Humphrey in Massachusetts.
These descendants of John were born between the years of 1836 and 1886.

Descendants are potential 8th cousins. ************************************


GGGGGGGGGrandfather: Michael Humphrey, b. 1620, Lyme Regis, Dorset, England - sons: Samuel and John. The potential  cousins in John's line are listed above.

I'll list the potential 9th cousins from Samuel's line in the near future. Recently, we were very fortunate to find a 9th cousin, Sam, in Canton Center, Ct, near Michael Humphrey's town of Simsbury, from information given in our family reunion with 3rd cousins in Springwater, NY.   His DNA test results confirmed the paternity of Ozias Sr. of Simsbury, born 1789.

 



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Graphs of Capelli's British Isles data - 2004

These graphs use data only from these specific papers - there's no intent to generalize beyond the scope of Capelli's & Rootsi's publications.  

This graph shows the north-to-south cline of the specific Capelli 6-marker I1a haplotype which matches our I1a*
haplotype: Capelli markers are below. The x-axis points are geographical sampling areas in the British Isles, starting
at Durness, Scotland, and moving south, down to Dorchester & Cornwall in southern England, and finally ending in the
Channel Isles. North Germany/Denmark & Norway are at the extreme right, and are the more ancient ancestral areas
for our I1a* haplogroup.  The graph shows  a clear north to south cline down through the British Isles, till Dorchester
near the southern English coast, where it upticks in Cornwall (PNZ/Penzance), and the Channel Isles. Remnants of the
Normans in 1066 & afterwards? The strong contribution in York reflects English history: William's Norse troops took
York back from the Danes and kept it afterwards.






                                                                                                        


Durness - North coast of Scotland    Western Isles - off the west coast of Scotland    Penrith - Lake District/Cumbria
Isle of Man/NW coast of England     York - near the east coast of mid-England          Llanidloes - central Wales   
Norfork - SE coast     Chippenham, Faversham - SE England      Dorchester - near mid southern coast   
Cornwall - extreme SW England    Channel Islands - between France & England, near Brittany, France.       
These locations move north to south along the X-axis.  Other I1a haplotypes also uptick in York, but this one
contributes the most.








The graph below shows the distribution in sampled areas of 4 haplotypes: The 2 most dominant IxI1b2 haplotypes,
and the 2 most dominant R1xR1a1 haplotypes.  As expected, the R1 is almost always more prevalent than any
other haplogroup, most dramatically in the Basque region in Northern Spain/Southern France, one of 5 spots
outside the British Isles in this paper.  In most areas there's an inverse relationship between the R1 & I1a
haplogroups: e.g., Basques, York, Norfolk, & Pitlochry  The contributions from these 4 types in North Germany,
Denmark, & Norway are very close: the I1a total is about 8.5% and the R1 total is about 9%, for these 4 specific
 haplotypes. About 17.5% of total samples from these areas north of the British Isles is from these 4 haplotypes.











Graphs of Rootsi's European data - 2004




Siiri Rootsi et al note in the abstract of their paper that haplogroup "I" is the only major clade of the Y phylogeny that is widespread in Europ but virtually absent elsewhere.  They collected data of 1,104 "I" Y chromosomes, from 7,574 men in 60 different populations. Subclade "I1a" accounts for most of the "I" in Scandinavia, with a rapidly decreasing frequency toward the Atlantic and also eastern Europe. The diversity of "I1a" in Scandinavia indicates that it's likely the source, i.e., it split from it's parent group in Scandinavia, perhaps 3000 years ago. Other "I" clades, e.g., I1b, are more prevalent in eastern Europe and may have originated in the Ukraine or the Balkans.


This 1st graphs shows the distribution of the 8 most dominant "I" haplotypes in Rootsi's paper. The countries on the X-axis are ordered roughly north-to-south.  The markers graphed below are identical to Capelli's:



                                     
Markers:    DYS388, DYS393, DYS392, DYS19,DYS390, DYS391
  









This 2nd Rootsi graph shows the 5 most prevalent I1a haplotypes listed, with Ken Nordtvedt's "H4" and North German/Danish DYS390=22 the most dominant.  This shows very clearly the prevalence in the Saami populations (mostly Finnish & Norwegian), Norway, & bordering Scandinavian countries.  The general I1a decline south and eastward from Scandinavia is obvious, as is the increase of I1b & I1b2 in southeastern Europe and Sardinia.









This 3rd chart shows Ken Nordtvedt's "H4" I1a* haplotype, one of the 2 most prevalent I1a* haplotypes in Rootsi's data. This shows very clearly the prevalence in the Saami populations (mostly Finnish & Norwegian), Norway, & bordering Scandinavian countries.  The general decline south and eastward from Scandinavia is obvious. The "dips" in Poland, Balkans, Sardinia, of this haplotype are inverse to several other I1a haplotypes, I1b & I1b2, which are very strong in these areas.




















                                                                                                  ***** Recent Update *****

Update:  4/17/06 -  We now have 4 members from the Nation Geographic Genographic Project. Three are R1b, 2 are WAMH (Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype, and the 3rd is a unique R1b & SNP tested. The fourth NG member is J2.  We now have a  total of 10 R1b members, of whom 4 are WAMH.

Our original 4 I1a* members are of my lineage, tracing back to Michael Humphrey, born 1577, Honiton, Devon.  His son Michael, born 1620 in Lyme Regis, Dorset, immigrated to Connecticut in 1640. A 5th I1a* member with surname Peet has a 24/25 match with our modal I1a* haplotype.

Two of our R1b members, kit#  18304 & 41586,  have a 25/25 match, and merged their family trees, having a common ancestor, David Humphreys, born ~ 1790, in Wales.

                                                   ***** Previous updates *****

Update:  4/17/06 -  We now have 4 members from the Nation Geographic Genographic Project. Three are R1b, 2 are WAMH (Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype, and the 3rd is a unique R1b & SNP tested. The fourth NG member is J2.  We now have a  total of 10 R1b members, of whom 4 are WAMH.

Update:  6/27/05 - Responding to a request for privacy,  Liles DNA results are no longer included. Morton, Peet, & Sutton data are displayed in the result tables below.  A modal haplotype for Liles I1a members will be available in the future at the Liles FTDNA webpage.   The Liles I1a modal haplotype matches our modal Humphrey haplotype 23/25.


Update:   1/17/05   -  We now have all 37 marker results for our 9th cousin, FTDNA kit# 26490: my brother, cousins & I all match 35/37, 36/37, or 37/37.  Our paper trails & these results are sufficient to establish with confidence that our assumption about the paternity of Ozias Humphrey, born 1789, is correct: we're descended from Michael Humphrey of Lyme Regis, born 1620.  Our Haplogroup has been SNP tested as I1a*. We continue to search for other cousins, for Michael's ancestry in England, France, & Scandinavia: we are *still seeking* participants for DNA testing. 


Update: 12/17/04 - I've begun a detailed analysis of the haplotype distributions in  2 recent papers,  Capelli: "A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles", & Rootsi:  "Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome HG I Reveals ... Gene Flow in  Europe." I'll be adding more graphs in the near future - the first 2 show our specific I1a hapolotype distribution in the British Isles, based on Capelli's data. More analysis will be added in the future.

                                      Graphs of Capelli's British Isles data - 2004

                                      Graphs of Rootsi's European data - 2004



Update: 11/19/04 - Our newest member is a 9th cousin who lives in the Simsbury, Connecticut area, FTDNA kit# 26490. We were very fortunate to find him through our 3rd cousins in Springwater, NY, after a recent family reunion. When his test result returns from FTDNA,
we expect to see a strong confirmation of the paternity question of Ozias Jr, born 1789 in Simsbury.

Update: 8/14/04 - SNP testing for P30 & P40 ascertained that I'm I1a*, which was strongly suspected, based on analysis using Ken Nordtvedt'sI1a haplotype groupings.  Now we strongly suspect that all of our "I"members who match my Humphrey members 12/12, with DYS455=8, and DYS YCAIIa,b = 19, 21 are also I1a*. Our Y-ancestors were very likely in southwestern Norway, circa 3000-3500 years ago, possibly more recently.




                 *** Possible Migrations to England of Humphrey(s) ancestors  ***

Combining family verbal lore,  surname linguistics, English & Norman history, we now have more evidence to support the supposition that our I1a* line had Norwegian ancestors as recently as year 400, Norman ancestors from approximately year 900, & English ancestors, likely in southern England, the Channel Islands and/or Isle of Wight, circa 1066, & with the Norman invasion at Hastings. For several centuries, the surname Humphrey has been concentrated in the Southeast of England, East Anglia, and Yorkshire.  Currently, the surname Humphreys (or Humphries) is concentrated in Wales.

There are other logical possibilities supported by English history & the genetic results:  (1)  Our ancestors were Norwegian Vikings migrating to Northwest England (possibly through Ireland),  eastward toward York, Norfolk, East Anglia, then south to Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, or (2) Danish/German ancestors arriving as Anglo/Saxons, settling in eastern England before the Viking invasions, or (3)  arriving with the Danish Viking invasions & Danelaw.

Our I1a* haplotype occurs in Capelli's data (2005) at frequencies of 6.47% in Norway & 5.26% in Denmark.  In Capelli's data York has the highest percentage of our I1a* haplotype at 11% of the total. The "I" haplogroup in York is 32% of the total sample, the highest concentration in any of the English, Scottish, or Irish regions.